ABOUT A ROBOTICS
For many people it is a machine that imitates a human—like the androids in Star Wars, Terminator and Star Trek: The Next Generation. However much these robots capture our imagination, such robots still only inhabit Science Fiction. People still haven’t been able to give a robot enough ‘common sense’ to reliably inteThe type of robots that you will encounter most frequently are robots that do work that is too dangerous, boring, onerous, or just plain nasty. Most of the robots in the world are of this type. They can be found in auto, medical, manufacturing and space industries. In fact, there are over a million of these type of robots working for us today.
Some robots like the Mars Rover Sojourner and the upcoming Mars Exploration Rover, or the underwater robot Caribou help us learn about places that are too dangerous for us to go. While other types of robots are just plain fun for kids of all ages. Popular toys such as Teckno, Polly or AIBO ERS-220 seem to hit the store shelves every year around Christmas time.
And as much fun as robots are to play with, robots are even much more fun to build. In
Being Digital, Nicholas Negroponte tells a wonderful story about an eight year old, pressed during a televised premier of MITMedia Lab’s LEGO/Logo work at Hennigan School. A zealous anchor, looking for a cute sound bite, kept asking the child if he was having fun playing with LEGO/Logo. Clearly exasperated, but not wishing to offend, the child first tried to put her off. After her third attempt to get him to talk about fun, the child, sweating under the hot television lights, plaintively looked into the camera and answered, “Yes it is fun, but it’s hard fun.”
But what exactly is a robot?
As strange as it might seem, there really is no standard definition for a robot. However, there are some essential characteristics that a robot must have and this might help you to decide what is and what is not a robot. It will also help you to decide what features you will need to build into a machine before it can count as a robot.
Origin of the term ‘robot’
‘Robot’ was first applied as a term for artificial automata in a 1920 play R.U.R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek. However, Josef Čapek was named by his brother Karel as the true inventor of the term robot.] The word ‘robot’ itself was not new, having been in Slavic language as robota (forced laborer), a term which classified those peasants obligated to compulsory service under the feudal system widespread in 19th century Europe (see: Robot Patent).] Čapek’s fictional story postulated the technological creation of artificial human bodies without souls, and the old theme of the feudal robota class eloquently fit the imagination of a new class of manufactured, artificial workers.
Mobile robots have the capability to kinetically circumvent in their environment and are not fine-tuned to one physical location. An example of a mobile robot that is in prevalence use today is the automated guided conveyance or automatic guided conveyance (AGV). An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. AGVs are discussed later in this article.
Mobile robots are additionally found in industry, military and security environments. They withal appear as consumer products, for regalement or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and virtually every major university has one or more labs that fixate on mobile robot research.
Mobile robots are conventionally utilized in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have arduousness responding to unexpected interference. Because of this most humans infrequently encounter robots. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly mundane in and around homes in developed countries. Robots can additionally be found in military applications.
types of robots:-
There are many ways how you could possibly define different types of robots. As I have seen the possible divisions vary widely. The main reason of these differences is that different tutors often tend to have different views on what should be taught under “robotics”.
For example – some tutors that teach robotics usually focus mainly on industrial robotics, neglecting service robots completely. Therefore when talking about types of robots they usually talk about types of industrial robots. There is a strong reason for this though – the vast majority of robotics engineers will have to deal mostly with industrial robots in their careers.
Nevertheless, industrial robots are not the only ones. Therefore, as I see it when dividing robots into types this division should be broad enough to include everything that can be understood as a robot.
There are two possible ways how this could be done. First, you could divide robots into types by their application and second – by the way they move (or don’t). I acknowledge that there are other possible ways how to divide robots into types but in my opinion these two are the best. Also, I prefer to use both these classifications together. This way two questions about a robot would already be answered – “What it does?” and “How it does it?”
Types of robots by application
Nowadays, robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields and the number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily. That’s why in my opinion one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application.
*Industrial robots – Industrial robots are robots used in an industrial manufacturing environment. Usually these are articulated arms specifically developed for such applications as welding, material handling, painting and others. If we judge purely by application this type could also include some automated guided vehicles and other robots.
*Domestic or household robots – Robots used at home. This type of robots includes many quite different devices such as robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic pool cleaners, sweepers, gutter cleaners and other robots that can do different chores. Also, some surveillance and telepresence robots could be regarded as household robots if used in that environment.
*Medical robots – Robots used in medicine and medical institutions. First and foremost – surgery robots. Also, some automated guided vehicles and maybe lifting aides.
*Service robots – Robots that dont fall into other types by usage. These could be different data gathering robots, robots made to show off technologies, robots used for research, etc.
*Military robots – Robots used in military. This type of robots includes bomb disposal robots, different transportation robots, reconnaissance drones. Often robots initially created for military purposes can be used in law enforcement, search and rescue and other related fields.
*Entertainment robots – These are robots used for entertainment. This is a very broad category. It starts with toy robots such as robosapien or the running alarm clock and ends with real heavyweights such as articulated robot arms used as motion simulators.
*Space robots – Id like to single out robots used in space as a separate
type. This type would include robots used on the International Space Station, Canadarm that was used in Shuttles, as well as Mars rovers and other robots used in space.
*Hobby and competition robots – Robots that you create. Line followers, sumo-bots, robots made just for fun and robots made for competition.
Now, as you can see there are examples that fit into more than one of these types. For example, there can be a deep sea exploration robot that can gather some valuable information that can be used for military purposes.
Also, I have seen that a division into two types is used, accordingly – industrial and service robots. However, I can not see how a Mars exploration rover fits into one of these general types. Therefore I have used “service robots” in a narrower manner. In my version a term “service robots” serves as “others”. This is basically a type where robots that don’t fit into other types should fall in.
Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics
As you can understand, robot’s application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot. For example an industrial robot – usually, when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task. That’s alright, but if there is an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? Its also a robotic device working in an industrial environment. So, I propose to use both these classifications together.
So there are:
1. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement)
1.4 SCARA robots
1.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms)
1.6 Parallel robots
2. Wheeled robots
2.2 Two-wheel robots
2.3 Three and more wheel robots
3. Legged robots
3.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots)
3.2 Tripedal robots
3.3 quadrupedal robots
3.4 hexapod robots
4. Swimming robots
5. Flying robots
7. Swarm robots
Wondering about others? Yes, there are others. For example snake-like robots. There are many fields of research that deal with different innovative types of robots. Someday they will be very useful. However, by now I’ll put them under the “others”